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Why Are People Still Dying From Valley Fever and Tens of Thousands Getting Sick?

Misdiagnosis. A lack of public awareness. And a long history of inaction by government agencies. In this occasional series, we will explore the startling rise of cases, the science of studying the disease, the high costs to patients and taxpayers, the weak federal and private interest in funding treatments and vaccines, and the public health response.

Valley fever cases reach epidemic levels, but harm remains hidden

Valley fever starts with the simple act of breathing. In about 100 cases every year nationally the fever kills. That’s more deaths than those caused by hantavirus, whooping cough, and salmonella poisoning combined, yet all of these conditions receive far more attention from public health officials.

Just One Breath: Valley Fever Science Catches Up with the News

A group of Southern California researchers tallied up every death certificate that mentioned valley fever over a nearly 20-year period. They found more than 3,000 deaths from the disease.

Disease sidetracks girl with dreams of dancing

A 7-year-old girl's childhood is tormented by a disease that government agencies continue to ignore. Last spring, Emily did not have enough energy to dance – let alone walk down the hallway of her family’s home.

Valley Fever cases missed because of lack of awareness

The soaring nationwide figures for valley fever don’t tell the whole story. Problems with screening for the disease and tracking it over time mean that thousands of cases go undetected and untreated every year, leading experts to believe the second epidemic is likely worse than documented.

Valley fever basics

What are the symptoms? Fever, a persistent cough that won’t go away, night sweats, weight loss, and different kinds of rashes. Once a person is infected with the fungus, it does not leave the body.

Changing Climate May Expand Valley Fever’s Impact

Valley fever feeds on heat. And as the average temperature ticks up with each passing decade, experts are concerned that the fungus’ footprint and impact are expanding, as evidenced by a rise in cases in areas far outside the hot spots of the Central Valley of California.

Putting Valley Fever on the Front Burner

How does knowledge about unfamiliar diseases enter the public consciousness and the public policy agenda?

When valley fever struck celebrated winemaker, doctors missed it

Boutique winery owner, Todd Schaefer, was diagnosed with pneumonia twice before doctors were able to see that he was infected with Valley Fever. As his condition worsens, the disease puts a strain on his health, and his business.

The Faces and Voices of Valley Fever

“I was really lost,” Candice said of her mother's death from valley fever in 2009. “She was my best friend.”

Videos: The Faces and Voices of Valley Fever

Beginning this weekend, we explore the human cost of this disease by asking those who are suffering to share their stories.

Valley Fever Stories: Patients Speak Out

Valley Fever affects each of its victims differently. Here, three patients share how the disease has deeply affected their lives and their families.

Valley Fever Costs Mount for Patients and Taxpayers

Valley fever is a drain on taxpayers. An estimated 60 percent of valley fever-related hospitalizations - resulting in charges of close to $2 billion over 10 years in California alone - are covered by government programs.

Editorial: Follow Rubio's lead on valley fever funding

In an editorial, the Bakersfield Californian praises state Sen. Michael Rubio "for stepping forward and pledging to do something about the rise in valley fever cases we've seen in recent years."

Photo credit: Daniel Casarez/Vida en el Valle

Town hall to explore the costs, human impact of valley fever

The Just One Breath investigative series on valley fever prompts a California state senator to hold hearings on the rise in cases in the state's agricultural Central Valley.

Taxpayers spend millions on valley fever in prisons

Californians are locked into contributing millions to treat the rising number of prisoners sickened by valley fever.

Valley fever forces police captain to give up his badge

At age 52, Bakersfield Police Captain Archie Scott was healthy and extremely fit. Then valley fever ended his career. “We didn’t know what we were dealing with,” he said.

g  Dr. Demosthenes Pappagianis in the lab with his research staff inside Tupper Hall at University of California, Davis. Photo by Brian Baer/Special To The Sacramento Bee

Valley Fever Vaccine Stalls

After years of promising developments, the effort to produce a valley fever vaccine was all but terminated because of a lack of funding and industry interest. Yet some still hope to see a vaccine on the market.

Just One Breath: How Hope for a Valley Fever Vaccine Crashed into Reality

The quest for a valley fever vaccine is losing ground as its leading scientists near retirement and funding remains scarce.

La Fiebre del Valle, que Puede ser Letal, Crece en el Valle de San Joaquín y Arizona

El Senador del Estado de California, Michael Rubio organizó una reunión pública en Bakersfield sobre la fiebre del valle, enfermedad que está impactando cada vez más al Valle de San Joaquín, el sur de California y Arizona.

Valley Fever: Scientists took different routes to find vaccine

Scientists researching a vaccine for valley fever take different scientific approaches to their work. Some have been stymied by a lack of funding for their work.

Seven-year-old Emily Gorospe, who has valley fever, cradles her doll as she rests in the arms of her mother, Valerie, at the Kern County Public Health Services Department during a town hall meeting on valley fever. By Felix Adamo / The Californian

Forum Highlights the Many Challenges to Taking on Valley Fever

San Joaquin Valley residents, doctors and experts demanded improvements in the way valley fever is studied at a town hall sponsored by California state Sen. Michael Rubio.

Valley Fever: What's Stopping The Vaccine?

There are arguments for developing a valley fever vaccine, but it can’t happen without a breakthrough in research — or more public funding.

Radio Programs Carry Crucial Valley Fever Information Across the State

Several California radio stations are helping to call attention to the terrible toll of valley fever by broadcasting reports and interview programs full of valuable information for listeners across the state.

Henry A. Barrios / The Bakersfield Californian: Dr. Navin Amin examines valley fever patient Archie Scott recently at his private practice office. Dr. Amin is the chair of the family practice department at Kern Medical Center and a valley fever expert.

Just One Breath: More People Dying from Valley Fever, Especially Those With Chronic Disease, Study Shows

Having another chronic disease like diabetes, arthritis or cancer may increase the risk of dying from valley fever, a new study suggests.

Just One Breath: Valley fever treatments can do harm as they heal

Current treatments for valley fever can take so long to work that they allow the disease to spread, becoming more damaging and more deadly. What can be done?

Valley fever takes an animal toll

Zoo animals, pets and animals in the wild contract valley fever the same way people do, by inhaling spores from a fungus.

Misdiagnosis of valley fever prolongs the suffering

In 2002, when her two-month-old daughter Jayden developed a fever, Jillian Lugo just thought her baby was getting her first cold. Little did she know that Jayden had contracted valley fever. Here's what happened next.

Just One Breath: Public Health Champion Felled by Diabetes and Valley Fever

Jeff Jue, a Central California mental health executive, hoped to enjoy his retirement by traveling. But his life was cut short by a deadly combination of diabetes and the valley fever he contracted during a retirement trip to South America.

Suffering, Misdiagnosis and Pain: Community members share valley fever stories

Just what is valley fever? The Center for Health Journalism Digital collaborative sheds light on how the public and medical community lack awareness of this often misdiagnosed disease that has been plagued by a long history of inaction by government agencies.

Congressional task force to aid valley fever fight

Republican Congressman Kevin McCarthy made another move in his crusade against valley fever Wednesday, announcing the new “Congressional Valley Fever Task Force.”

Reported valley fever cases fell in California, Arizona last year

California’s tally of valley fever cases dropped by more than 1,000 last year and some counties have also seen fewer cases in the early months of 2013. But public health officials say it’s too early to identify long-term trends in the numbers.

CDC Plans a Valley Fever Public Health Campaign in San Joaquin Valley

A Bakersfield congressman says he has helped to launch an upcoming CDC awareness campaign on valley fever and seeks to spur work on a vaccine.

Valley fever uptick demands attention

A report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, issued last week, shows that the incidence of valley fever cases is up an astounding 850 percent over the past decade-plus.

Lab assistant Erin Scott with the Kern County Public Health Services Department places valley fever patient samples into test trays. Photo: Casey Christie / The Californian

Valley fever cases skyrocketing, says CDC

The number of valley fever cases has soared so high in recent years that health experts are calling it "The Second Epidemic."
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now confirms a sharp rise in cases of the fungal disease, especially in California and Arizona.

Just One Breath: Valley fever advocates see hope for new funding, new laws

Legislators are poised to take action on valley fever, a long-ignored disease that is the subject of a Reporting on Health Collaborative project.

Just One Breath: Five Ways to Move the Fight Against Valley Fever Forward

Coming out of the dark will require coordination and significant sums of money. The Reporting on Health Collaborative asked patients, physicians, researchers and government officials to identify steps that could be taken now to change the course of the disease.

Follow Rubio's lead on valley fever funding

Kudos to state Sen. Michael Rubio for stepping forward and pledging to do something about the rise in valley fever cases we've seen in recent years.

Valley fever crisis demands a champion

The press coverage by the Reporting on Health Collaborative exposed just how little attention the airborne fungal infection has received from officials at all levels of government. This has to end.

Public pushes for new thinking in valley fever research

Advocates of valley fever research have complained that the disease does not affect enough people to garner attention and funding; local doctors often misdiagnosed it; most data about the disease dates back decades; and the public has little knowledge of the disease and its impact.

Valley Fever Research Day Aims To Connect With Community

Community members are invited to attend Valley Fever Research Day Saturday at the UCSF Fresno Center for Medical Education and Research. The event is an opportunity for researchers to connect with community members who have been impacted by the fungal disease.

Federal, local officials hopeful for 'new era' in valley fever

Many questions about valley fever remained unanswered Tuesday as public health officials, physicians and politicians finished a two-day symposium on the disease, but many were hopeful that the summit will be a turning point.

Agencies to Launch Randomized Controlled Trial for Valley Fever

Directors of the National Institutes of Health and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention tell a packed valley fever symposium they are "serious" about finding a better treatment for the disease.

Just One Breath: Valley fever’s human and financial costs detailed in new study

The rate of people being hospitalized for valley fever has doubled in California over the past decade. Not only are more people being diagnosed with the disease but the cases are serious enough that more people are ending up in the hospital.

Valley Fever Symposium

On Monday, valley fever and the California area hit hardest by it will receive unprecedented attention in a two-day symposium led by U.S. Rep. Kevin McCarthy, R-Bakersfield. Rarely do the leaders of CDC and the NIH - two of the most powerful health institutions in the world - join the stage.

Just One Breath: Valley Fever Deserves More Ink in Scientific Journals

Valley fever hasn’t generated significant research funding. What will help move the needle? A sustained effort by public health advocates, clinicians and patients and their families and continued attention from media outlets.

Just One Breath: Valley fever movement could learn from health success stories

Strong patient advocacy raised the profile of breast cancer and HIV/AIDS. What lessons can those involved in the fight against valley fever learn from other, more high profile diseases?

Inmates fearful as some are sent into valley fever prisons

California prisoner Louis Baca and his family tried everything they could think of to keep the convicted murderer out of Pleasant Valley State Prison. Their big fear? Valley fever.

Casey Christie / The Bakersfield Californian A memorial was held for Dr. Hans Einstein at the end of the second valley fever walk Saturday at the Kern County Museum.

Valley fever trailblazer’s love of Bakersfield, people remembered by physicians, patients

Valley fever pioneer remembered Saturday not only for his great contributions to treating the little-known disease, but for his deep love of people and humanity toward everyone he met.

Casey Christie / The Bakersfield Californian The Bakersfield Condors hockey team mascot "Baby Cal," center, has fun with the walkers during the annual valley fever walk.

2nd annual valley fever awareness walk draws survivors out

Survivors and their loved ones walk to support research for valley fever. Physicians were also on hand at the event to answer questions about how the disease affects humans.

McCarthy: CDC to hold valley fever symposium

Congressman Kevin McCarthy (R-California) seeks to get funding for valley fever vaccine research and is working with the CDC to get a clinical trial to determine best treatment for the disease.


State Raises Questions About Moving Inmates At Risk of Valley Fever

California's Attorney General has questioned the feasibility of the federal order to move more than 3,000 inmates especially vulnerable to valley fever from two Central Valley prisons.

State Prison Officials: Receiver's Valley Fever Policy 'Premature'

Officials say they need "further clarification" before they can implement an order from the federal receiver in charge of California's prison system that requires inmates vulnerable to valley fever be moved from Central Valley prisons.


Prison Health Advocates Call For More Steps to Stop Valley Fever Outbreak

State and experts are now digesting the directive for California's Department of Corrections to remove inmates from two Central Valley prisons, who are especially at risk of contracting valley fever.

Experts hail step to move at-risk inmates out of valley fever hot spots

Still, moving thousands of prisoners is a massive endeavor complicated by factors such as inmates’ security levels, and medical, mental health and rehabilitation needs.

About 40 percent of the inmates at Avenal and Pleasant Valley state prisons will be relocated, due to their risk of acquiring valley fever.

Inmates At Risk of Valley Fever To Be Moved From Two Valley Prisons

Over the last seven years, 40 California state prisoners have died with valley fever as either the primary or the secondary cause of death. For this reason, the prison system has been ordered to transfer at risk inmates from two facilities in endemic areas.

Kevin Walker acquired disseminated cocci while serving time at the federal prison in Taft. (Courtesy of Kevin Walker)

Just One Breath: Valley Fever Turns Short Prison Terms Into Lifelong Penalties

As valley fever rates skyrocket in some Calif. prisons, experts and inmates alike question whether it’s fair to doubly punish people — once for a crime, and again with a severe disease.

The cobweb-like shadows in this chest X-ray are signs of pulmonary fibrosis from Valley Fever.

A Fever in the Dust

Although still unknown outside of the American west, valley fever is a severe fungal infection — and its territory may expand as the climate warms.
During a checkup in November 2019, Abraham and his mother, Magdalena Gonzalez, received a skin test

In 2018, Governor Jerry Brown Allocated $8 million to Cocci Research And Awareness. How Has It Been Spent?

In his final 2018-2019 budget former California Gov. Jerry Brown allocated $8 million in state funding toward combating valley fever, split evenly between the University of California system and the new Valley Fever Institute at Kern Medical in Bakersfield. Here’s how that money’s been spent.
Garcia-Lloret and Butte still see Abraham during most of his checkups, including this one in November 2019. Credit: UCLA

Following Funding Boosts, Momentum Builds Around Valley Fever Research

Researchers have been trying to understand valley fever for decades, but the playing field remained small until recently.
Six-year-old Abraham Gonzalez-Martinez celebrated a successful checkup at UCLA

‘Eureka moment’ in valley fever case paves way for new research, treatment options

UCLA's Dr. Manish Butte still remembers the day almost two years ago when he met a young boy who could barely walk or talk and needed a feeding tube to eat. He was suffering from a life-threatening case of valley fever.
Photo via Kerry Klein/KVPR

Valley fever medication poses added risk for pregnant women

Research suggests an alarming link between a common drug used for valley fever and birth defects. The disease also tends to be more severe in pregnant women.
Getty Images

Legislation caps momentous year in battle against valley fever

Recently signed legislation capped a big year for efforts to combat a regional disease long overlooked by lawmakers.
Lemonade Locks wig boutique owner Kelly Giblin fits a hairpiece onto retired Kern County Deputy Sheriff Brenda Blanton, who suff

For valley fever survivors, a growing need: wigs

The antifungal drugs used to treat valley fever can cause hair loss. With the number of valley fever cases on the rise, a wig shop in Bakersfield, Calif., is helping women feel better about themselves.
(Photo by Kevork Djansezian/Getty Images)

California budget boosts funding for valley fever

The budget includes $8 million for research and outreach into the disease, caused by inhaling spores that grow in arid soil.
CREDIT: Courtesy of Assemblyman Vince Fong's office

Three valley fever bills sail through committee, one pulled by sponsor

Facing pushback from the medical community, California Assemblyman Vince Fong withdrew a bill late last month that would have required doctors to order specific types of lab tests when they suspect valley fever.
Assemblyman Rudy Salas, D-Bakersfield, speaks in favor of a bipartisan $7 million budget proposal.

Assemblymen ask state for $7 million in fight against valley fever to fuel research, spread awareness

Bakersfield Assemblymen Vince Fong and Rudy Salas submitted a $7 million budget proposal that, if approved, would be the largest amount of money California has ever designated to research and raise awareness of the disease.
In 2016, a group of Kern Medical Center doctors and staff members introduced a clinical trial to study Fluconazole, a drug regul

One year after federal health officials launch first-of-its-kind valley fever drug trial, few have enrolled

Just 48 people have signed up across California and Arizona for a new clinical trial of Fluconazole, an antifungal drug used to treat valley fever. That's far fewer than officials had expected.
Credit: Casey Christie / The Californian

Bakersfield legislators ask state for $3M in fight against valley fever

Bakersfield lawmakers requested $3 million in the state budget last week to research treatments and conduct outreach for valley fever.
Vince Fong is introducing new valley fever legislation

Unprecedented six bills introduced within days of each other to address valley fever

Assemblyman Vince Fong, R-Bakersfield, will introduce two bills Wednesday aimed at combating valley fever, the orphan disease which infected Californians at epidemic levels last year.
Salas introduces valley fever legislation

Disease experts split on benefits of valley fever bills introduced this week

Advocates for valley fever research give California Assemblyman Rudy Salas an “A” for effort for the "most robust" legislative effort to address the disease in state history. But public health officials and experts are split on whether the remedies proposed by Salas will bring improvements.
Assemblyman Salas introduces valley fever legislation

Salas introduces 'most robust' valley fever legislation in state's history

California Assemblyman Rudy Salas' introduced a new package of four bills on Monday that aim to boost valley fever awareness and treatment.

Rapid-detection DNA test for valley fever clears FDA, but procedure could be 'uncomfortable' for most patients

Researchers say a new test for valley fever can return nearly 100 percent accurate results in under two hours. It’s a breakthrough for the orphan disease.
Sailors saluting flag at Lemoore, black and white.

Military’s early valley fever research still benefiting public health today

In the city of Lemoore, a community of 25,000 rising out of arid cropland in California’s San Joaquin Valley, almost everyone has a story about valley fever.
Nine workers were infected by valley fever at a Cholame Hills solar panel construction project late last year, resultin

Nine sick of valley fever at Monterey County solar construction site, one hospitalized

The workers fell ill earlier this year while working on a solar panel project in Monterey County after six employers allowed serious lapses in training and safety precautions.
6 construction firms in Monterey County were fined for exposing workers to valley fever. Contributed, First Solar

State fines firms for exposing workers to valley fever in Monterey County

Six construction firms involved in the California Flats Solar Project in Monterey County were fined $241,950 by a state agency this week after a whistleblower alleged the companies were exposing workers to valley fever.
Sheriff Donny Youngblood stars in new valley fever PSA

Valley fever has its champion: Kern County Sheriff stars in awareness campaign

Two major obstacles have stood in the way of the development of a meaningful valley fever awareness campaign: money, and a lack of a celebrity to champion the cause. Now, Kern County Department of Public Health Services is introducing two television PSA starring starring Sheriff Donny Youngblood.
(Nick Ellis/for The Californian)

Promise and frustration: Valley fever advocates and legislators vow to ‘press harder' after governor rejects critical bill

Even as valley fever cases are sharply increasing in Central California, Gov. Jerry Brown has vetoed legislation that would have created programs to inform the public about the little-known respiratory disease.
Photo: Olivia Henry/The Center for Health Journalism

Doctors still foggy on valley fever symptoms

Rick Parker knew he had valley fever, but his doctors wouldn’t test him. “I knew what I had, and I wasn’t going to put up with a lung cancer misdiagnosis and have them remove a lung for no reason whatsoever,” he said.
Photo Credit: Casey Christie / The Californian

Weakened valley fever bill heads to governor's desk

The California legislature approved a bill Wednesday that would require the state public health department to develop public outreach programs for valley fever, an insidious respiratory disease endemic to Kern County. It next heads to the governor.
Assemblyman Rudy Salas. Photo credit: Casey Christie / The Californian

State senators vote this week on valley fever bill

State senators will vote this week on a bill that would enhance valley fever reporting guidelines and mandate public outreach. The aim: to raise public awareness of valley fever, an insidious respiratory disease endemic to the southwestern United States.
Henry Barrios/The Californian

Three ways valley fever could be elevated as a public health priority

Experts in social behavior and public health weigh in on raising the public's valley fever awareness: create a simple, memorable message, turn that message into a social movement, and reach out regularly to find out if awareness has increased.
1: Rep. Kevin McCarthy, R-Bakersfield, leads a Congressional Valley Fever Task Force, which includes Rep. David Schweikert, R-Ar

States skimp on valley fever awareness

Valley fever infects more than 13,000 people a year in Arizona and California and kills more than 100. Yet they spend less annually on public awareness than one school district's monthly lunch milk budget and a parks and recreation department's yearly janitorial supplies.
Matt Constantine, director of Public Health for Kern County, introduces a campaign to bring awareness to valley fever and releas

Valley fever infections surge in California’s Central Valley

Valley fever killed six Kern County residents in 2016 and infected 1,905 others, a 62 percent surge over the number infected the year prior. Officials are launching a new billboard campaign to raise awareness of the risks.
[Photo by Casey Christie/The Californian]

Calif. lawmaker seeks valley fever funding, overhaul of reporting guidelines

The bill would bring $2 million to an already-established state fund for valley fever vaccine research and create guidelines for how local, state and federal agencies report cases.
Dr. David Elbaum helps his patient, Juan Solis, who contracted cocci meningitis in 2008, his wife Julie is with him during the d

Juan Solis lives a life in the shadows, his health destroyed by valley fever

When Juan Solis shuffles out of his dark bedroom, he’s careful not to get too close to the windows. He only walks his dogs at night. That's because Solis has extreme light sensitivity, caused by valley fever.
Photo via Flickr

3D imaging could answer fundamental questions about valley fever

A Phoenix-based laboratory is capturing detailed images of the fungus that causes valley fever, hoping to better understand how it works.
Photo Credit via Flickr

Health agencies fall behind on tracking valley fever

Valley fever is a fungal respiratory infection that is a constant health threat in vast stretches of the San Joaquin valley. 
Jacquie Green plays with her dogs Maggy and Jack at their foothills home in Tucson, Ariz. Maggy, the wolfhound, has had valley f

Valley fever dog vaccine research could help humans, too

Researchers say a canine vaccine against valley fever could be available within the next 10 years, and the work to save dogs from the disease could also further efforts to create a valley fever vaccine for people.
Five years after his diagnosis, Richard Nuwintore still swallows four pills a day of the potent antifungal itraconazole. (Kerry

California prisons reduce risk of valley fever for inmates

Richard Nuwintore's sentence in the California prison system has ended, but the valley fever infection he picked up while doing time is a life sentence. The state is now working to lower the risk for inmates.
Rep. Kevin McCarthy (R-Bakersfield) talks with Lisa Higgins, associate director of Valley Fever Initiatives at The University of

Federal funding fuels new valley fever research

The National Institutes of Health is now providing critical support to multiple studies on valley fever. Such research could yield critical new breakthroughs in our understanding of the long-overlooked disease.
Lab Assistant Erin Scott with the Kern County Public Health Services Department places valley fever patient samples into test tr

Accurate valley fever counts elude health officials

“Valley fever is almost certainly underreported, due to physicians and the public not being familiar with the disease,” said one infectious disease specialist. Reliable estimates of valley fever cases are still lacking.
Dust storms, like this one in Fresno, can help distribute the fungal spores that cause valley fever. (Photo: Craig Kohlruss/The

CDC technology advances promise better valley fever detection

New sensors in development at the CDC could provide a breakthrough in valley fever detection and prevention throughout the Southwestern United States.
Eleven-year-old Faith Herrod, recovering from valley fever, plays with Moses, Ninja and her other four pets when she has the ene

New valley fever skin test shows promise, but obstacles remain

A new skin test called Spherusol can detect whether a person has developed immunity to valley fever. But despite its promise, the test still isn’t in wide use.
Dust storms, like this one in Fresno, can help distribute the fungal spores that cause valley fever. (Craig Kohlruss/Fresno Bee)

FORECASTING AN EPIDEMIC: Does weather hold the key to predicting valley fever outbreaks?

As recently as August, Calif. health officials predicted the number of valley fever cases this year would go down. Now it’s shaping up to be one of the worst years on record.

About This Series

This project results from an innovative reporting venture – the Center for Health Journalism Collaborative – which currently involves the Bakersfield Californian, Radio Bilingüe in Fresno, Valley Public Radio in Fresno and Bakersfield, Vida en el Valle in Fresno, the Voice of OC in Santa Ana, Hanford Sentinel, the Arizona Daily Star in Tucson, La Estrella de Tucsón and The collaborative is an initiative of the Center for Health Journalism at the University of Southern California’s Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism.

The Latest Chapter: Promise and Frustration

Valley Fever Reaches Epidemic Levels, But Harm Remains Hidden

Changing Climate May Expand Valley Fever's Impact



Valley Fever: The Search for an Effective Vaccine 

Radio Programs Carry Crucial Valley Fever Information Across the State

Suffering, Misdiagnosis and Pain: Community members share valley fever stories

Valley Fever Blog

Government Response to Valley Fever

Federal Agencies Get Involved

Prisoners at Risk