Skip to main content.

Prison Health Advocates Call For More Steps to Stop Valley Fever Outbreak

Prisoners at Risk

Fellowship Story Showcase

Prison Health Advocates Call For More Steps to Stop Valley Fever Outbreak

The Reporting on Health Collaborative involves The Californian, the Merced Sun-Star, Radio Bilingue in Fresno, The Record in Stockton, Valley Public Radio in Fresno and Bakersfield, Vida en el Valle in Fresno, the Voice of OC in Santa Ana and Center for Health Journalism Digital. It's an initiative of The California Endowment Health Journalism Fellowships at the University of Southern California's Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism.

Reporting On Health Collaborative
Wednesday, May 1, 2013

By Rebecca Plevin

HOST INTRO: On Monday afternoon, the federal receiver in charge of health care in California’s prisons ordered the state prison to remove inmates from two Central Valley prisons, who are especially at risk of contracting valley fever.  A day later, the state and experts are digesting that directive. Valley Public Radio’s Rebecca Plevin reports, as part of the Reporting on Health Collaborative’s investigation into the disease.

The day after a federal receiver ordered two state prisons to exclude inmates especially vulnerable to valley fever, experts hailed the directive as a step toward addressing an alarming public health problem.

Meanwhile, the state is grappling with how to digest the directive. Jeffrey Callison is the spokesman for the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. He says the agency is still evaluating the receiver’s authority to decide where inmates are housed.

“Obviously, the receiver has full authority from the court over the provision of health care, and CDCR has provision over custody issues, in other words, where people are held. This obviously is an issue that might be in between that needs to be resolved.”

In his directive, medical receiver J. Clark Kelso ordered that inmates who are at high-risk of contracting valley fever and more likely to die from the disease should be expelled from Pleasant Valley State Prison in Coalinga and Avenal State Prison. The goal of the policy is to reduce the risks of the disease to a, quote, “reasonable level.”

The order includes African Americans and Filipinos, inmates older than 55, and inmates with HIV or suppressed immune systems. A 2012 report from the state prison system found that more than two-thirds of the 27 inmates who died of valley fever between 2006 and 2010 were black. The rate of death due to the disease among blacks was twice that among non-black inmates.

Joyce Hayhoe is with the department of California Correctional Health Care Services. She says the directive addresses a major health issue in the state prison system. The policy will impact about 40 percent of the population at the two state prisons.

"Since 2006, we've had 40 deaths statewide where valley fever was either the primary or the secondary cause of death, so it's more than just one or two cases here or there."

Donald Specter is the executive director of the Prison Law Office in Berkeley. He says he raised concerns about valley fever in the state prison system in September.

“Unfortunately, they have not treated it like it’s a public health emergency. They’ve treated it just as business as usual. If this kind of injury or death had happened in the free world, those institutions would have been closed long ago.”

He calls the receiver’s directive a “significant interim measure.” The receiver has also instructed the prison system to request the help of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, to conduct an epidemiologic evaluation of the valley fever cases at the two prisons. Specter says this data could help determine the next steps.

“We are interested to hear those results. They will tell us whether there are any ways the risk can be mitigated and if not, closing the prisons might be the only alternative.”

Jason Feldman is a Venice-based lawyer that helped a former Taft Correctional Institution inmate earn a settlement from the U.S. government after he acquired valley fever in the federal prison. He also said the health care directive is a step in the right direction. But he said he would like to see the directive expanded.

“Short of closing these prisons, this is a step in the right direction, but it’s not a complete solution by any means.”

“We’d like to see this go even further – this focuses on the two prisons that have the largest problem, but there are several other prisons and institutions in the San Joaquin Valley that could use a directive like this, or similar to this.”

But Callison, of the Department of Corrections, said relocating thousands of prisoners, just from the Pleasant Valley and Avenal state prisons, would be a major endeavor. It’s complicated by other considerations, like inmates’ security levels, and medical, mental health and rehabilitation needs.

“Whether or not thousands of inmates are moved out of those two prisons and into other prisons, and then a corresponding number of inmates are moved out of the prisons and moved into the two Valley prisons, would be a major undertaking, and complicated.”

Health experts say that both Pleasant Valley and Avenal State Prison are in located areas where prisoners are exposed to the airborne fungus that causes valley fever. In 2005, the valley fever rate at Pleasant Valley was 600 times the rate of Fresno County.

Experts say there are several reasons inmates experience high rates of valley fever. Many come from outside the region, so they have never been exposed to the fungus that causes the disease. They spend lots of time outdoors in the dusty prison yard, where they could inhale the spores. And, many inmates already have weakened immune systems, due to disease like AIDS or hepatitis.

This story is from

About This Series

This project results from an innovative reporting venture – the Center for Health Journalism Collaborative – which currently involves the Bakersfield Californian, Radio Bilingüe in Fresno, Valley Public Radio in Fresno and Bakersfield, Vida en el Valle in Fresno, Hanford Sentinel, the Voice of OC in Santa Ana, the Arizona Daily Star in Tucson, La Estrella de Tucsón and the Center for Health Journalism. The collaborative is an initiative of the Center for Health Journalism at the University of Southern California’s Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism.


A Fever in the Dust

Although still unknown outside of the American west, valley fever is a severe fungal infection — and its territory may expand as the climate warms.

In 2018, Governor Jerry Brown Allocated $8 million to Cocci Research And Awareness. How Has It Been Spent?

In his final 2018-2019 budget former California Gov. Jerry Brown allocated $8 million in state funding toward combating valley fever, split evenly between the University of California system and the new Valley Fever Institute at Kern Medical in Bakersfield. Here’s how that money’s been spent.

Following Funding Boosts, Momentum Builds Around Valley Fever Research

Researchers have been trying to understand valley fever for decades, but the playing field remained small until recently.

‘Eureka moment’ in valley fever case paves way for new research, treatment options

UCLA's Dr. Manish Butte still remembers the day almost two years ago when he met a young boy who could barely walk or talk and needed a feeding tube to eat. He was suffering from a life-threatening case of valley fever.

Valley fever medication poses added risk for pregnant women

Research suggests an alarming link between a common drug used for valley fever and birth defects. The disease also tends to be more severe in pregnant women.

Legislation caps momentous year in battle against valley fever

Recently signed legislation capped a big year for efforts to combat a regional disease long overlooked by lawmakers.

For valley fever survivors, a growing need: wigs

The antifungal drugs used to treat valley fever can cause hair loss. With the number of valley fever cases on the rise, a wig shop in Bakersfield, Calif., is helping women feel better about themselves.

California budget boosts funding for valley fever

The budget includes $8 million for research and outreach into the disease, caused by inhaling spores that grow in arid soil.