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A forgotten health crisis in Navajo lands

A forgotten health crisis in Navajo lands

Picture of Amy Linn
Photo by Don Usner/Searchlight New Mexico
A home outside of Farmington, New Mexico, where a lack of decent roads, safe homes and drinking water pose daily challenges for the inhabitants of Navajo Nation. (Photo by Don Usner/Searchlight New Mexico)

On my first reporting trip to the Navajo Nation, I decided to drop by a school that was troubled in almost every way. Gallup Central Alternative High School, a rundown building surrounded by vacant lots, had some of the lowest test scores and highest dropout rates in the state.

The principal, an educator in Indian Country for more than 30 years, told me his students faced obstacles at every turn.

What problems were the worst? I asked. I imagined he would mention poverty, childhood trauma or substance abuse.

“Roads,” he said. He waited for me to take that in. “And it would help if more students had running water at home,” he added.

His comments were eye-opening — and so were the roads, homes and living conditions I saw in the days to come. I’d written about life on tribal lands in Montana, South Dakota and Canada. But I’d never encountered anything like the Navajo Nation.

The reservation, the largest in the country, is a 27,000-square-mile swath of high plains and desert in New Mexico, southern Utah and Arizona — an area as large as the state of West of Virginia. It is home to roughly 250,000 residents.

More than a third of the Diné (“the people,” in Navajo) live without electricity, paved roads, cell phone service, landlines, safe housing or other essentials of modern life.

About 75 percent of the roads are dirt and washboard, most of them studded with rocks and wheel-swallowing potholes. The dirt turns to gumbo in rain and snow; the roads become impassable.

School buses can’t navigate their routes to pick up children, as the principal explained to me. Many parents don’t have cars; they can’t deliver kids to school on time, or at all. Winter is a nightmare of school delays and cancellations. A majority of children are already struggling academically, and missing class leaves them farther and farther behind.

Up to 40 percent of households in some areas don’t have clean running water at home, a problem so acute that the Navajo often compare the region to sub-Saharan Africa. These families don’t have tap water to wash their hands, cook a healthy meal or bathe.

People haul water home in plastic containers, driving as much as 20 miles each way to fetch it from unimproved wells or livestock tanks, where water is potentially contaminated with fecal waste, E coli, viruses, parasites, arsenic or uranium.

Some Diné live on 10 gallons of water a day, the equivalent of two or three flushes of a toilet. (Most Americans, by comparison, use about 100 gallons a day.) The lack of clean water has many of the same health consequences as in parts of Africa, including high rates of hospitalizations for severe diarrhea, which can be life-threatening for children under 5.

The Navajo Nation, in addition, has more substandard housing than any tribal lands in America, federal reports say. Families with small children and elderly grandparents live in ramshackle mobile homes that lack heat, windows or proper roofs. To stay warm in winter, people burn coal or wood inside the house, releasing toxic smoke that’s linked to high rates of lung disease.

The problems are hardly new: A Senate hearing detailed the very same issues in 2007. As Sen. Byron Dorgan (D-North Dakota) then testified, “One in five reservation homes lacks complete plumbing, and 90,000 Indian families are homeless or under-housed. It is not uncommon in Indian communities for 25 to 30 people to share a single home.”

Eleven years later, the problems remain.

Up to a third of people on the Navajo Nation today lack heating, plumbing, or fully equipped kitchens. Indoor toilets are a luxury. Few communities have proper sewer systems, and it’s not uncommon for septic tanks to collapse under the weight of cars.

Many people lack homes altogether. In Gallup, the homeless sometimes sleep in fields and ditches; more than a dozen people freeze to death each winter. In 2015, 17 people died in open fields or alleys, all of them Native American. In 2014, three men were found dead of hypothermia in a single day. 

The problem would be worse if it weren’t for the fact that families in Indian Country open their doors to people who have nowhere to stay. Nearly 100 percent of respondents to a federal survey said they had friends or extended family sleeping on couches or floors in their already overcrowded homes. Some school districts employ a full-time person just to keep track of the homeless students who ping-pong between friends and relatives.

When there’s no electricity, children can’t turn on a lamp to do homework after dark. Parents can’t serve fresh, healthy foods, because they don’t have electricity for a refrigerator. They wish for better roads so they could get police or an ambulance to their door in an emergency. They wish for phone service.

Landlines rarely exist and cell phone signals are spotty. The common Diné words for cell phone are "bil n'joobal'," and "hooghan bik bil dahjilwo" – loosely translated as “thing you use while spinning around” and “thing you use while running uphill” in search of a signal, locals say.

My 2018 National Fellowship project will investigate the lack of infrastructure, which creates profound challenges for families already struggling with extraordinary disadvantage.

Access to clean water, among other things, is considered a universal human right, essential for health and human dignity.

The lack of water in other parts of the globe attracts international attention, charitable work and millions of dollars in donations. A Google search for “water NGO Africa” delivers 47 million results. Search for “water NGO Navajo” and you get 300,000 results, one of them a document aptly entitled “The Forgotten People.”

I plan to drive thousands of miles and visit as many families as possible to portray what it means to be this forgotten, for this long.


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I was raised on the Navajo Reservation and you're correct that residents live in third-world conditions. However, our Navajo Nation government is not without resources. The government officials consistently blame "Washington" for their own failures when the true blind eye rests with the elected Navajo officials. The issue isn't money/funds, the issue is that we cannot run even a lemonade stand without someone stealing the money. Elected or chapter house officials embezzle or loan money to family and then face no legal ramifications when caught. We are our own worst enemy.

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If this is true that elected officials are the ones embezzling the money and there are no ramifications, then I think the people should take matters into their own hands. This is being unfair to the children who deserve a better life than what they are receiving. The elected officials should take pride in their Nation not for just a few but for all.

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We have spent over 25 years visiting/living in this area. Navajo Nation is rich in resources. More than enough for its peoples. Often times its squandered, wasted, mismanaged, corrupted, etc. Stop blaming the "US Government" or this people or that people.

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Navajo Tribal leaders are so corrupt and Navajo people accepted that as a normal thing because there is no hope and little news they get how the outside world is enjoying liberty and prosperous economy.., Listen to all the radio stations inside the reservation, you will hear everything is fine and your leaders are working very hard for you. those that know poverty cause by corrupt government left long time ago, most can't come home because they no longer have a land even if they re-apply for a land .., it's a good chance they'll never get it due to barriers of tribal bureaucracy.

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Back in the day when the Navajo relied on livestock and wagons for transportation, they relish life and most felt life was good for them, they were proud and self-reliant. All despite the fact that they had no electricity, running water or modern transportation. When government started getting more and more involved with their free handouts, stock reduction, and welfare, life became easier for them monetarily, it stripped them of their life values and ethics. Why work hard when you can have money sent to you to buy groceries or enjoy other pleasures such as drinking. In my view, this is the point where life as I knew it and heard about from my grandparents, broke down. The Navajo tribe became reliant on government without being educated about the value of a dollar. The shameful result of this exists even today, when car dealerships take advantage of them by charging outrages interest rates, and white traders took advantage of them with pawnshops. It is a form of socialism in my eyes, and it started the day the reservations were created and government stepped in. It was inevitable that indigenous tribes all over the world didn’t have a chance, we were outnumbered and outsmarted. The best chance we have now are our children, who hopefully, by sheer determination, get educated and come home to protect their inheritance, their people and improve tribal laws, create jobs, improve necessary structures, thus breaking the vicious cycle of poverty and reliance on government.

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How can I help? Is there any way to help?

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Hey Sheila! I'm a 21 year old Navajo female and I love that you are offering to lend a hand! If you would like to help, there is a non-profit organization called Dig Deep. They help my community and others alike! Check out their page and I am sure you will enjoy it. Visit
(I am not a spokesperson for this organization, I just love the work they do for my people!) Thank you in advance!


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